The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious. Diabetic animals are more prone to infections. The long-term complications recognized in humans are much rarer in animals. The principles of treatment (weight loss, oral antidiabetics, subcutaneous insulin) and management of emergencies (e.g. ketoacidosis) are similar to those in humans.
The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors. While some of these factors are under personal control, such as diet and obesity, other factors are not, such as increasing age, female gender, and genetics. Obesity is more common in women than men in many parts of Africa. A lack of sleep has been linked to type 2 diabetes. This is believed to act through its effect on metabolism. The nutritional status of a mother during fetal development may also play a role, with one proposed mechanism being that of DNA methylation. The intestinal bacteria Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus have been connected with type 2 diabetes.
Treatment plans that include both very long-acting insulin and very short-acting insulin are frequently the most successful for controlling blood sugar. Very short-acting insulin is used with meals, to help control the spike in blood sugar levels that occur with a meal. If a person does not eat on a regular schedule, very short-acting insulin can be particularly helpful.
Treatment-related low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with type 1 and also type 2 diabetes depending on the medication being used. Most cases are mild and are not considered medical emergencies. Effects can range from feelings of unease, sweating, trembling, and increased appetite in mild cases to more serious effects such as confusion, changes in behavior such as aggressiveness, seizures, unconsciousness, and (rarely) permanent brain damage or death in severe cases. rapid breathing and sweating, cold, pale skin are characteristic of low blood sugar but not definitive.[unreliable medical source?] Mild to moderate cases are self-treated by eating or drinking something high in sugar. Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and must be treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon.[unreliable medical source?]
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco. Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease. Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications with or without insulin. Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar. Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.
Chuck Kremin left because of his diabetes and the fact that his wife was afraid of ghosts. — Los Angeles Times, "Gold Point, Nev., has a population of 6. One of them runs the inn. It’s not exactly his calling," 5 Aug. 2019 It is considered a key contributor to life-threatening conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. — Maryann Struman, Detroit Free Press, "Obesity expert Stephen O'Rahilly to receive $100K Taubman Prize for Excellence," 16 July 2019 Pyle missed only five of 126 possible games in his nine years with the Bears despite needing halftime insulin injections to regulate his diabetes. — Will Larkin, chicagotribune.com, "Ranking the 100 best Bears players ever: No. 66, Mike Pyle," 1 July 2019 Leal has learned the same lesson about managing his diabetes. — Lauren Caruba, ExpressNews.com, "A ‘scary disease’: Children with Type 2 diabetes suffer from advanced complications, study finds," 28 June 2019 He was discharged from the hospital on March 29 after receiving extensive treatment for his diabetes and infection. — Cynthia Hubert, sacbee, "He cycled between the streets and ER four times since February. Is this program the answer? | The Sacramento Bee," 11 May 2018 Jones actually found out about his diabetes by accident, which isn't uncommon. — Tehrene Firman, Good Housekeeping, "James Earl Jones Discusses His Diabetes for the First Time in Two Decades," 4 Jan. 2018 Paula Deen's recent announcement about her diabetes was a wake-up call for me. — Aarti Sanan, Redbook, "7 Easy Ways to Avoid "Bad" Carbs," 2 Feb. 2012 Licurtis had been given a diagnosis of diabetes, and leaned against a stool for support. — Lizzie Presser, ProPublica, "The Reels Brothers Spent Eight Years in Jail for Refusing to Leave It.," 15 July 2019