^ Jump up to: a b c d Vos T, Allen C, Arora M, Barber RM, Bhutta ZA, Brown A, et al. (GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators) (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.
Per the WHO, people with fasting glucose levels from 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/l (110 to 125 mg/dl) are considered to have impaired fasting glucose.[70] people with plasma glucose at or above 7.8 mmol/l (140 mg/dl), but not over 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), two hours after a 75 gram oral glucose load are considered to have impaired glucose tolerance. Of these two prediabetic states, the latter in particular is a major risk factor for progression to full-blown diabetes mellitus, as well as cardiovascular disease.[71] The American Diabetes Association (ADA) since 2003 uses a slightly different range for impaired fasting glucose of 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/l (100 to 125 mg/dl).[72]
Prevention and treatment involve maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical exercise, a normal body weight, and avoiding use of tobacco.[2] Control of blood pressure and maintaining proper foot care are important for people with the disease.[2] Type 1 diabetes must be managed with insulin injections.[2] Type 2 diabetes may be treated with medications with or without insulin.[13] Insulin and some oral medications can cause low blood sugar.[14] Weight loss surgery in those with obesity is sometimes an effective measure in those with type 2 diabetes.[15] Gestational diabetes usually resolves after the birth of the baby.[16]
This includes both difficulty in urination, as well as an increased urge and frequency of urination. The bladder may become overly active, or the muscles of the bladder may become too weak to completely empty the bladder. This is caused by damage to the nerves due to high blood sugar levels in diabetes. This can significantly affect your quality of life, and can also predispose you to urinary tract infections which will require treatment with a course of antibiotics.
You must regularly visit an eye doctor, such an optometrist or ophthalmologist, to check for these potentially serious conditions. According to guidelines from the American Diabetes Association, people with type 1 diabetes should have an annual dilated comprehensive eye exam beginning five years after diagnosis. People with type 2 diabetes should have this comprehensive dilated eye exam yearly beginning at diagnosis. 

Genome-wide association studies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have identified a number of genetic variants that are associated with beta-cell function and insulin resistance. Some of these SNPs appear to increase the risk for type 2 diabetes. Over 40 independent loci demonstrating an association with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes have been shown. [16] A subset of the most potent are shared below [17] :

Here’s what you need to know about type 1 diabetes. 1.25 million Americans have it and 40,000 people will be diagnosed with it this year. Type 1 diabetes occurs at every age, in people of every race, and of every shape and size. There is no shame in having it, and you have a community of people ready to support you. Learning as much as you can about it and working closely with your diabetes care team can give you everything you need to thrive.

Since cardiovascular disease is a serious complication associated with diabetes, some have recommended blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg.[92] However, evidence supports less than or equal to somewhere between 140/90 mmHg to 160/100 mmHg; the only additional benefit found for blood pressure targets beneath this range was an isolated decrease in stroke risk, and this was accompanied by an increased risk of other serious adverse events.[93][94] A 2016 review found potential harm to treating lower than 140 mmHg.[95] Among medications that lower blood pressure, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) improve outcomes in those with DM while the similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[96] Aspirin is also recommended for people with cardiovascular problems, however routine use of aspirin has not been found to improve outcomes in uncomplicated diabetes.[97]
^ Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Kansagara D, Horwitch C, Barry MJ, Forciea MA (April 2018). "Hemoglobin A1c Targets for Glycemic Control With Pharmacologic Therapy for Nonpregnant Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Guidance Statement Update From the American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine. 168 (8): 569–576. doi:10.7326/M17-0939. PMID 29507945.
^ Imperatore G, Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, Case D, Dabelea D, Hamman RF, Lawrence JM, Liese AD, Liu LL, Mayer-Davis EJ, Rodriguez BL, Standiford D (December 2012). "Projections of type 1 and type 2 diabetes burden in the U.S. population aged <20 years through 2050: dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and population growth". Diabetes Care. 35 (12): 2515–20. doi:10.2337/dc12-0669. PMC 3507562. PMID 23173134. Archived from the original on 2016-08-14.
Gestational diabetes mellitus is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy (see Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy). Gestational diabetes mellitus is a complication of approximately 4% of all pregnancies in the United States. A steady decline in insulin sensitivity as gestation progresses is a normal feature of pregnancy; gestational diabetes mellitus results when maternal insulin secretion cannot increase sufficiently to counteract the decrease in insulin sensitivity.
Type 1 diabetes is partly inherited, with multiple genes, including certain HLA genotypes, known to influence the risk of diabetes. In genetically susceptible people, the onset of diabetes can be triggered by one or more environmental factors,[42] such as a viral infection or diet. Several viruses have been implicated, but to date there is no stringent evidence to support this hypothesis in humans.[42][43] Among dietary factors, data suggest that gliadin (a protein present in gluten) may play a role in the development of type 1 diabetes, but the mechanism is not fully understood.[44][45]
Here’s what you need to know about type 1 diabetes. 1.25 million Americans have it and 40,000 people will be diagnosed with it this year. Type 1 diabetes occurs at every age, in people of every race, and of every shape and size. There is no shame in having it, and you have a community of people ready to support you. Learning as much as you can about it and working closely with your diabetes care team can give you everything you need to thrive.
[Guideline] USPSTF. Public comment on draft recommendation statement and draft evidence review: screening for abnormal glucose and type 2 diabetes mellitus. US Preventive Services Task Force. Available at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Announcements/News/Item/public-comment-on-draft-recommendation-statement-and-draft-evidence-review-screening-for-abnormal-glucose-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus. Accessed: Oct 14 2014.
The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious. Diabetic animals are more prone to infections. The long-term complications recognized in humans are much rarer in animals. The principles of treatment (weight loss, oral antidiabetics, subcutaneous insulin) and management of emergencies (e.g. ketoacidosis) are similar to those in humans.[126]
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